Indian Legislation has played a notable role in bringing about improvement in the role and status of women. The severe disabilities from which Indian women suffered at the beginning of the 19th century were too numerous and drastic and have been gradually removed through laws and successive amendments. Lord Bentinck at the instance of Rammohan Roy abolished sati through a Regulation in 1829. The widow Re-marriage Act of 1856, the Civil Marriage Act of 1872, the Married Women’s Property Act of 1874 and the Age of Consent Act of 1881 led to the gradual emancipation of women in India. The Child Marriage Restraint (Sarada) Act, 1929 has recently been amended to rise the marriageable age for boys and girls to 21 and 18 respectively. The Marriage Validation Act of 1892 and the Special Marriage Act of 1954 permit inter-caste and interreligious marriages. The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 is a major social legislation covering all aspects of Hindu marriage; including abolition of bigamy and provision of divorce for women. It has been recently amended to liberalize the provision in favour of women. The Gains of Earning Act, 1930 protects individual (Women’s) earning in a joint Hindu family the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 confers property rights on women. The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 enhances the status of women in the matter of adoption. The Dowry Prohibition Act completes the list.
1. Effect on Health – one of the most devastating effects that poverty has is on the overall health of the nation. The most prominent health issue stemming from poverty is malnutrition. The problem of malnutrition is widespread in all age-groups of the country but children are most adversely affected by this. Limited income in larger families leads to lack of access to sufficient nutritious food for their children. These children over time suffer from severe health problems like low body weight, mental, physical disabilities and a general poor state of immunity making them susceptible to diseases. Children from poor backgrounds are twice as susceptible to suffer from anemia, nutrient deficiencies, impaired vision, and even cardiac problems. Malnutrition is a gross contributor of infant mortality in the country and 38 out of every 1,000 babies born in India die before their first birthday. Malnutrition among adult also leads to poor health in adults that leaches their capacity for manual labour leading to a decrease in income due to weakness and diseases. Poverty also causes definite decline in the sanitary practices among poor who cannot afford proper bathrooms and disinfectants. As a result susceptibility to waterborne diseases peak among the poor. Lack of access to as well as means to procure appropriate treatment also affects overall mortality of the population which is lower in poor countries than developed nations like the USA.
We should not be selfish people and understand our duties towards country. It’s we, not others who are both, the victim and the benefiter. Our each and every activity affects us in positive and negative manner (if we do positive we become benefiter and if we do negative we become victim). So, why we do not take pledge today to take our each and every step positively in right direction in order to get protected from being a victim in our own country. It is us who have right to rule the country by selecting a good leader. So, why we blame others or politicians, we should blame only us and not others as it’s we who are not performing duties according to the demand. We have been involved in our own daily routine only and have not any mean to other’s life, extracurricular activities, political affairs of the country, etc. It is our mistake that our country is still in the category of developing country and not in the developed country.