A PhD (NFQ Level 10) or doctoral programme should take from three to four years (full-time) to complete. ECTS credits are used in doctoral programmes for taught elements only. Learning outcomes at this level relate to the discovery and development of new knowledge and skills and delivering findings at the frontiers of knowledge and application. Further outcomes at this level relate to specialist skills and transferable skills required for managing, such as the ability to critique and develop organisational structure and initiate change. Postgraduate students may have to pass a series of examinations and/or assessments in order to progress through their course and may be required to attend for interview as part of the application process.