administrative machinery under the overall guidance and direction of the political executive.
The above tasks and challenges for the higher Civil Services were taken due note of by the Kothari Committee (1974-76) which had mentioned that to successfully meet the challenges facing the nation, the members of the Service must have not only " relevant knowledge and skills " but also " socio-emotional and moral qualities for working for and with the community". We endorse the above views and fePl that whereas intellectual attributes, relevant knowledge and capacity to innovate in a period of rapid transition are necessary for the higher Civil Services, the members of such Services must have social traits to identify themselves with the people tc make administration a participative adventure 1. To be ruccessfu1,the officers must also have capacity for hard work , honesty,
The exact scoring system depends on the Bundesland, in which one takes Abitur. Passing the Abitur usually requires a composite score of at least 50%. Students with a score below that minimum fail and do not receive an Abitur . There are some other conditions that the student also has to meet in order to receive the Abitur : taking mandatory courses in selected subject areas, and limits to the number of failing grades in core subjects. Finally, students often have the option of omitting some courses from their composite score if they have taken more courses than the minimum required.